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May 20, 2021 Paul Burns
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An Illustrated Chronological History of the Development of Motion Pictures Leading to the Discovery of Cinematography in the 1800s
Topics: earlycinema, cinemahistory, precinema, camera obscura, magic lantern
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Jun 2, 2020 Paul T Burns
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1890 JULES DAMOIZEAU (DAMOIZED) - CYCLOGRAPHE Damoizeau built what has been suggested as the first panoramic camera, which is untrue. The Cyclographe took photographs encompassing a full 360º and was one of the better panoramic cameras of the day. It was a collapsible bellows-camera and contained a pointed punch which would strike and thereby identify each new exposure on the roll prior to its passing before a slit at the shutter. The dimension of the roll film was 80cm by 8.5cm and operated...
Topics: CYCLOGRAPHE, 1890, JULES DAMOIZEAU, DAMOIZED, panoramic camera, stereoscopic camera
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Jun 2, 2020 Paul T Burns
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1875 JOHN ARTHUR ROEBUCK RUDGE- PHANTASCOPE The Rudge Projector, or Phantascope, (not to be confused with the Phantoscopes of Jenkins or Robertson) has been described as a combination of the works of Beale (the Choreutoscope , SEE BEALE 1872 , and SEE MOLTENI 1865 ) , Brown ( the Uchatius Lantern Wheel of Light SEE BROWN 1869 ) , and Wheatstone ( Stereoscopes , SEE WHEATSTONE 1838 ) . Rudge's version was considered the most fluid of pictures to date due in part to the intermittent movement...
Topics: JOHN ARTHUR ROEBUCK RUDGE, Phantascope, Phantoscope, 1875, Choreutoscope, Lantern Wheel of Light,...
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Jun 2, 2020 Paul T Burns
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PEPPERS GHOST 1862 -1863 JOHN HENRY PEPPER & HENRY DIRCKS Combining a little of theatrical magic and a magic lantern show is the work of Dircks and Pepper. The final outcome - Pepper's Ghost. As the story goes, an engineer from Liverpool named Henry Dircks created a model of an apparatus capable in theory of projecting a life-like ghost onto a stage before an audience. As Thomas Weynants has correctly pointed out, this 'appearance' of a ghost-like projection was in fact the "...
Topics: PEPPERS GHOST, 1862, 1863, JOHN HENRY PEPPER, HENRY DIRCKS, Shuftan Process, Phantasmagoria
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Jun 2, 2020 Paul T Burns
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1858 GEORGE SWAN NOTTAGE - LONDON STEREOSCOPIC COMPANY Nottage manufactures a Stereoscopic Camera that will fit in a man or lady's pocket. It measures 8 by 4 3/4 inches and is 2 inches deep. Nottage began the London Stereoscopic Company, in 1854. Their specialty was the mass production of stereoscopic photographs. The company by 1856 had produced an estimated one-half million Stereoscopes and Stereo Cards. The demand was so immense that by this time, The London Stereoscopic Company claimed to...
Topics: GEORGE SWAN NOTTAGE, Valentine Blanchard, LONDON STEREOSCOPIC COMPANY, SWAN, NOTTAGE, LONDON,...
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1850 The Grand Moving Panorama of John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress In 1996, Tom Hardiman discovered a portion of The Grand Moving Panorama of John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, (painted c.1850-1851), at the York Institute in Saco, Maine. Curator of the Institute, Hardiman stumbled upon two large sections of this very famous (in it's time) Moving Panorama. Found in the basement of the Institute, the Panorama in its original state would have been eight feet tall by approximately 900 feet long....
Topics: 1850, GRAND, MOVING, PANORAMA, PILGRIM'S, PROGRESS, Moving, Panorama, of John, Bunyan's, Pilgrim's,...
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May 26, 2020 Paul Burns
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First ever illustration of a CAMERA OBSCURA ca. 1420 JOHANNES DE FONTANA ( - ) What appears to be the earliest-ever illustration of the camera obscura is found in a book by Fontana in 1420. The drawing shows a nun holding a vertically shaped camera with an image on the inside. Historians and commentators routinely speak of this illustration as a lantern, however the apparatus held is nothing like a lantern. The camera obscura contains the image and the lantern projects it . In this drawing by...
Topics: JOHANNES DE FONTANA, 1420, camera obscura, lmagic lantern, cinematography, pre cinema history
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May 20, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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CAMERA OBSCURA The word ‘cinema’ comes from ‘Kinema’-toscope and is derived from the Greek word kinema-matos meaning the science of pure motion. The term 'camera obscura' takes its meaning from the Latin for 'dark room'. This is an animated GIF from an image in a 19th century book entitled 'Wonders of Optics' by F. Marion. Courtesy Bright Bytes Studio. For three centuries alone, a fundamental piece of equipment, the camera obscura, had been known to man (not to mention pinhole images...
Topics: cinematography, photography, camera, obscura, magic lantern, persistence of vision, optics, light,...
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May 19, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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  GEORGES DEMENY PHONOSCOPE 1892 Demeny, who worked alongside Marey at the Station Physiologique, built the Photophone for photographing, and the Phonoscope for projecting. Again, even with celluloid available (and used by them since 1888), Demeny used a glass disc which contained the chronophotographs (between 18-24 around the circumference), and projected them on the screen. This process is reminiscent of Muybridge's Zoopraxiscope , and was actually an improvement on Anschutz's...
Topics: GEORGES DEMENY, PHONOSCOPE, 1892, Station Physiologique, Photophone, Biographe, chronophotographs,...
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May 18, 2020 ETIENNE-JULES MAREY FUSIL PHOTOGRAPHIQUE 1882
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ETIENNE-JULES MAREY FUSIL PHOTOGRAPHIQUE 1882 Marey designs and builds what was to become the world's first portable motion picture camera (Janssen's pistol/gun camera of 1874 was not portable, but canon-like and stationary). Marey designs and builds a camera in the shape of a 'rifle' which is used to take 12 frames of birds in flight. The 'Chronophotographs' as they were called, were taken at a speed of 1/720th of a second. Marey called his "rifle" a Fusil Photographique . Disk Used...
Topics: ETIENNE-JULES MAREY, FUSIL PHOTOGRAPHIQUE, 1882
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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SIMON RITTER VON STAMPFER   -  STROBOSCOPE 1832 1832 SIMON RITTER VON STAMPFER (1792 - 1864) It is not known whether Stampfer (of Vienna) knew Plateau or of his work. Stampfer would build his Stroboscope this year with almost exact dimensions as that of Plateau. The Stroboscope and Phenakistoscope were so similar in construction, operation, looks and achievement, that they have oft times been mistaken as the other, by non historians of the craft without a careful look see. Stampfer also...
Topics: Stampfer, Plateau, Stroboscope, Phenakistoscope, 1832, SIMON RITTER VON STAMPFER, persistence of...
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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LIONEL SMITH BEALE  - CHORENTOSCOPE OPTICAL TOY 1866 Could also be spelled Choreutoscope This year Beale 'animates' pictures he had drawn, using his invention, the Chorentoscope (or Choreutoscope ). This very simple optical toy is hand-held and is cranked by a small handle, which draws a lantern slide through the apparatus using a small gear. Six images are seen in succession for a split-second each. In the files we have provided above, we see a Beale Chorentoscope ca. 1866. The slide, viewing...
Topics: LIONEL SMITH BEALE, Chorentoscope, Choreutoscope, OPTICAL TOY, 1866, Maltese Cross, projector,...
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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AMERICAN MUTOSCOPE & BIOGRAPH COMPANY - THE JEFFRIES/SHARKEY FIGHT 1899 No better example of the popularity of cinema in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a tool to promote and sell, is the heavyweight title prizefight between Jim Jeffries and Tom Sharkey. Boxing matches had long been filmed by now, but nothing on this scale had been seen by the live eye, let alone on the screen. The fight took place on the evening of November 3rd, and The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company had...
Topics: AMERICAN MUTOSCOPE, BIOGRAPH COMPANY, JEFFRIES/SHARKEY FIGHT, 1899, celluloid, pre cinema history
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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FILMING OF QUEEN VICTORIA DIAMOND JUBILEE 1897 Several Seconds of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee Procession From 1897. Before newsreels developed out of story telling cinematography, enthusiasts of this new art form took it upon themselves to film great events of the age. Instead of shooting people crossing a bridge, dancing in a yard or trains arriving, we begin to see actual news-worthy events being filmed and shown the next day, or sometimes within hours. This footage we have provided is...
Topics: QUEEN VICTORIA, jubilee, 1897, Robert Paul, Alfred Wrench, Birt Acres, John A. Prestwich, R.J....
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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FILMING OF QUEEN VICTORIA AT BALMORAL CASTLE 1896 Queen Victoria was born (1801) before photography was discovered, and began her reign just two years following the announcement that the Daguerreotype process was being given freely to the world (1839) . Following her husband's death in 1861 she became withdrawn and upon counsel she allowed herself to be photographed not in a way similar to a royal portrait. She allowed cameras to film her on more than one occasion as a way to gain popularity...
Topics: QUEEN VICTORIA, BALMORAL CASTLE, William and Daniel Downey, 1896, celluloid, pre cinema history
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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ZOOPRAXISCOPE WALTZING COUPLE In 1893 Muybridge attends the Columbian Exposition at Chicago and provides a work entitled 'Descriptive Zoopraxography' . The Zoopraxiscope is the star of the show as Muybridge presents his work at his Zoopraxigraphicall Hall . The Zoopraxiscope operated by projecting images (drawn from photograph s in some cases) rapidly and in succession onto the screen. The photograph s were painted onto a glass disc for the Zoopraxiscope (even though the Hallotype photographic...
Topics: Muybridge, Stanford, 1879, pre cinema history, Zoopraxiscope, waltzing couple
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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Muybridge publishes his 100,000 plus photos in 'Animal Locomotion- An Electro-photographic Investigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Movements' . There were over seven hundred plates, all folio-sized, in eleven volumes. This work is today a reference source in motion study and is considered the most exhaustive analysis ever made of the subject. When seen through the Zoopraxiscope (as early as 1879) , Muybridge's photographs are without debate, the world's first motion pictures. Men, women,...
Topics: Muybridge, Stanford, 1879, pre cinema history, Zoopraxiscope
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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The Zoopraxiscope , a moving picture projector, is designed and introduced by Muybridge. The Zoopraxiscope operated by projecting images drawn from photographs (by Faber and Eakins) , rapidly and in succession onto the screen. The photographs were painted onto a glass disc [even though Langenheim's Hyalotype process allowed photographs to be copied onto glass] which rotated, thereby producing the illusion of motion. From this point forward in time, Muybridge's work began to clearly show that...
Topics: Muybridge, Stanford, 1879, cinema, Zoopraxiscope
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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In April of 1873 the Daily Alta California reported that Muybridge had photographed the horse ‘Occident’, owned by Governor Leland Stanford. The newspaper stated in the story that Muybridge's photographs had in fact shown the animal "frozen" in mid stride. Word will quickly spread around the U.S. and then the world, of what Muybridge's work was actually proving - that horses leave the ground, and that recorded motion was possible. This one still photograph taken from the proof...
Topics: Muybridge, Stanford, 1873, Occident, cinema, Zoopraxiscope
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May 18, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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An animation of  Stanford's trotter Sallie Gardner is from this proof sheet, taken of the horse on June 19, 1878. 1866 EADWEARD JAMES MUYBRIDGE (1830 - 1904) Born as Edward James Muggeridge, Muybridge sails to the United States in 1852 and opens a bookstore in San Francisco shortly thereafter. After a head injury and recuperation period in England, he sailed to America again and began photographing western landmarks. One such series of photographs was of the Yosemite Valley, which he sold...
Topics: Muybridge, Stanford, 1873, Sallie Gardner, Occident, cinema, Zoopraxiscope
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May 17, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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This animation of  Stanford's trotter Sallie Gardner is from a proof sheet, taken of the horse on June 19, 1878. 1866 EADWEARD JAMES MUYBRIDGE (1830 - 1904) Born as Edward James Muggeridge, Muybridge sails to the United States in 1852 and opens a bookstore in San Francisco shortly thereafter. After a head injury and recuperation period in England, he sailed to America again and began photographing western landmarks. One such series of photographs was of the Yosemite Valley, which he sold under...
Topics: Muybridge, 1873, Standford, Zoopraxiscope, cinema
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May 17, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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1866 EADWEARD JAMES MUYBRIDGE (1830 - 1904) Born as Edward James Muggeridge, Muybridge sails to the United States in 1852 and opens a bookstore in San Francisco shortly thereafter. After a head injury and recuperation period in England, he sailed to America again and began photographing western landmarks. One such series of photographs was of the Yosemite Valley, which he sold under the pseudonym Helios, The Flying Camera (Helios being Greek for Sun) . Muybridge would become a major player in...
Topics: Muybridge, Zoopraxiscope, galloping horse, Stanford
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May 17, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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BIRT ACRES (1854 - 1918)  ROUGH SEA AT DOVER 1895 ROUGH SEA AT DOVER (this is a three second looped animation) Sometime between March and May of 1895 Acres films several more shorts, one of which he titles 'Rough Sea At Dover' . Other short films photographed by Acres were; ' The Derby' , 'The Boxing Kangaroo' , 'Comic Shoe Black' and 'Arrest of a Pickpocket' as well as others. Shortly after the production of these shorts, Acres parts company with Robert Paul. It will be almost a year before...
Topics: Birt Acres, Kineopticon, Rough Sea at Dover, 1895
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May 17, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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L'ARROSEUP ARROSE - LUMIERE EXPERIMENTAL FILM 1895 1895 AUGUSTE (1862 - 1954) LOUIS (1864 - 1948) LUMIERE Before their public presentation in December this year to paying customers, the Lumière's filmed a comedic scenario called 'L’Arroseur arrosé' (The Waterer Watered) . In it was the Lumière gardener François Clerc, along with a boy apprentice working in the Lumière labs, Benoît Duval. The story was of course simple and along the more modern lines of 'Denise the Menace' . An image...
Topics: Lumière, 'L’Arroseur arrosé', The Waterer Watered
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May 17, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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EDISON KINETOSCOPE RECORD OF A SNEEZE - FRED OTT 1894 1894 WILLIAM KENNEDY LAURIE DICKSON (1860 - 1935) Dickson uses the Kinetograph to photograph Fred Ott, one of Edison's laboratory workers, standing in front of the camera sneezing. This was not another 'experimental film', but simply a publicity stunt for a New York magazine. The magazine wanted still pictures of a man sneezing to accompany a story. It was catalogued as 'Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze' and has gone down into history...
Topics: Kinetograph, photograph, Fred Ott, Edison, Kinetoscopic, Sneeze
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May 16, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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THE LUMIERE EXPERIMENTAL FILMS Arrival Of A Train At La Ciotat Station Known as Actualités, or 'actuality' films, their repertoire of experimental films amassed to over two thousand by the year 1903. These films of everyday life added greatly to the popular culture. One such film was entitled Arrival Of A Train At La Ciotat Station or, “L'Arrivée d'un Train en Gare de la Ciotat” . Subtitled and catalogued as number 653, this short featured members of the Lumière family in the crowd to...
Topics: LUMIERE EXPERIMENTAL FILMS, Arrival Of A Train At La Ciotat Station, L'Arrivée d'un Train en Gare...
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May 15, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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DONISTHORPE'S TRAFALGAR SQUARE FOOTAGE 1890 1876 WORDSWORTH (WOODSWORTH?) DONISTHORPE (1848 - 1914) He described a strip of paper with photographs on it equal distances from each other. Each would be wound from one cylinder to another and then seen through either the Phenakistoscope or Zoetrope . 1878 WORDSWORTH (WOODSWORTH?) DONISTHORPE (1848 - 1914) Donisthorpe finishes initial work on his Kinesigraph which may have been designed with Edison's Phonograph in mind. Edison had shown interest in...
Topics: Trafalgar Square, 1890, Donisthorpe, Crofts, celluloid, pre cinema history, 1889, 1890, WORDSWORTH...
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May 15, 2020 Paul Burns THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
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Second Earliest Film: Leeds Bridge Traffic Scene of October 1888 Le Prince used non-perforated sensitized Kodak roll-paper film for these frames which remain twenty in all. These frames show daily traffic crossing the River Aire in Leeds England and were photographed in October 1888 by Le Prince. Michael Harvey of the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television in London, "These only exist today as photographic copies, made in the 1930s, of parts of the paper film strips" ....
Topics: second oldest surviving film, Le Prince, Leeds Bridge Traffic, 1888
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May 15, 2020 Paul Burns
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Earliest Extant Film: Roundhay Garden Scene of 14 October, 1888 From Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince No other strip of film has ever been produced which pre-dates this one. It is known as the Roundhay Garden Scene . Le Prince photographed this sequence (2-3 weeks prior to Leeds) in the garden of the Whitley home, (home of his father-in-law) Roundhay, Leeds. 1885 LOUIS AIME AUGUSTIN LE PRINCE (1841 - 1890) Le Prince begins initial work on his motion picture experiments and in 1886 applies for a...
Topics: oldest surviving film, Le Prince, Leeds Bridge, Roundhay Garden Scene, 1888, extant, Roundhay...
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May 15, 2020 Ruth Hayes Random Motion randommotion.com
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JOHN AYRTON PARIS Thaumatrope
Topics: Thaumatrope, optical toy, motion, 19th century
May 13, 2020
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The History of the Discovery of Cinematography Favorites
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May 13, 2020 Paul T Burns, Ph. D., Author, Film Historion
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THE HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF CINEMATOGRAPHY An illustrated Chronological History of the Development of Motion Pictures Covering 2500 Years Leading to the Discovery of Cinematography in the 1800's  http://precinemahistory.net
Topics: cinematography, Layard, Sophocles, Herodotus, Empodocles, Mo Ti, Plato, Aristotle, Democritus,...